Men with testicular cancer may experience a variety of symptoms or signs. Sometimes, men with testicular cancer do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition that is not cancer. So, having these symptoms does not mean that a man definitely has cancer.

Usually, an enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer. Any lump, enlargement, hardness, pain, or tenderness should be evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible. Other symptoms of testicular cancer usually do not appear until after the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Symptoms of testicular cancer may include:

  • Painless lump or swelling on either testicle. If found early, a testicular tumour may be about the size of a pea or a marble, but it can grow much larger

  • Pain or discomfort, with or without swelling, in a testicle or the scrotum

  • Change in the way a testicle feels or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. For example, 1 testicle may become more firm than the other testicle. Or, testicular cancer may cause the testicle to grow bigger or to become smaller

  • Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin

  • Sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum

  • Breast tenderness or growth

  • Lower back pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and bloody sputum or phlegm can be symptoms of later-stage testicular cancer

  • Swelling of one or both legs or shortness of breath from a blood clot can be symptoms of testicular cancer. A blood clot in a large vein is called deep venous thrombosis or DVT. A blood clot in an artery in the lung is called a pulmonary embolism and causes shortness of breath. For some young or middle-aged men, developing a blood clot may be the first sign of testicular cancer

Many symptoms and signs of testicular cancer are similar to those caused by noncancerous conditions.

  • Change in size or a lump in a testicle

  • A cyst called a spermatocele that develops in the epididymis. The epididymis is a small organ attached to the testicle that is made up of coiled tubes that carry sperm away from the testicle

  • An enlargement of the blood vessels from the testicle called a varicocele

  • A build-up of fluid in the membrane around the testicle called a hydrocele

  • An opening in the abdominal muscle called a hernia

  • Pain

  • Infection. Infection of the testicle is called orchitis. Infection of the epididymis is called epididymitis. If infection is suspected, a patient may be given a prescription for antibiotics. If antibiotics do not solve the problem, tests for testicular cancer are often needed

  • Injury

  • Twisting

If you are concerned about any changes you experience, please talk with your doctor. Your doctor will ask how long and how often you’ve been experiencing the symptom(s), in addition to other questions. This is to help find out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis.